]!Onh©»œ!ï¼BÜfÑ]ˆWæ1…±‰’’¸DXK}-"¦'¦jÁ8Oþl”ü/ˆ¼Y|ïòÀ¹…ðÒ;ò3Áú0ämH¤çÓ Wúš°•Cþ‰Ør=0qkç(§R£áTŠVR)#*±›ÌŽ’ñZjpÐË!jr"­Ö杂o¬&Ó †´ QòUj[ÀV->†®?ÕÑѕÅê1u‹È9ò:Ë\³˜i<>-”ÎOæ^ª#²Ü€ÁCk»… Z­ìڎç#qf’Ð~\öyGÑNœÃú¢ íÙ …ï§2ƒ¥ øtTî®×ûmBÆæþðz#‰ì. 2012) that resulted in 185 fatalities. Positive effects, such as a greater sense of community connection, can aide in helping the community heal as a whole. (2014). The report is a literature review of the published material related to the recovery from the Canterbury earthquake sequence, and provides a whole of government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery efforts. [162], Thousands of people helped with the clean-up efforts—involving the removal of over 200,000 tonnes of liquefaction silt—including Canterbury University's Student Volunteer Army which was created in response to the earthquake that September and the Federated Farmers' "Farmy Army". [111], Of the 185 victims, 115 people died in the Canterbury Television building alone, while another 18 died in the collapse of PGC House, and eight were killed when masonry fell on Red Bus number 702 in Colombo Street. The 6.3-magnitude earthquake may have been an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake.New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia … The Christchurch earthquake in September the 4th 2010 and its aftershocks were caused by plate tectonics such as these, the two plates involved collided in an transverse collision. A decision was made to remove the dome because the supporting structure was weakened. ×´3±™Dv¼ó —¹&. "[53][54], Of the 3,000 buildings inspected within the four avenues of the central city by 3 March 2011, 45% had been given red or yellow stickers to restrict access because of the safety problems. [26] The central business district (CBD) experienced PGAs in the range of 0.574 and 0.802 g.[27] As a comparison, the 7.0 Mw 2010 Haiti earthquake had an estimated PGA of 0.5g. [60], The four-storey Pyne Gould Guinness (PGC) House[61] on Cambridge Terrace, headquarters of Pyne Gould Corporation, collapsed, with 18 casualties. Also the two events furthest to the west are mainly reverse faulting and may be considered as part of the aftershock sequence to the September 2010 M 7.1 earthquake rather than the February M 6.3 earthquake. [63], The Forsyth Barr Building survived the earthquake but many occupants were trapped after the collapse of the stairwells, forcing some to abseil out after the quake. [51], Damage occurred to many older buildings, particularly those with unreinforced masonry and those built before stringent earthquakes codes were introduced. [247][248], Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee echoed that fewer claims were expected through the EQC than for 2010. Implemented programs can use this knowledge to help survivors focus on the positive effects, possibly working with families to help them get through the disaster with the people they feel closest with. The last survivor was pulled from the rubble the day after the quake. [182], Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, issued a statement on behalf of the UN expressing his "deep sadness" and stressed the "readiness of the United Nations to contribute to its efforts in any way needed". [258][262] Those with relatively high exposure to earthquake damage show an increase in positive effects, including an increase in personal strength, growth in social relationships, the bringing of families closer, and realizing what's important in life. [229] The team's round three match against the Northern Mystics in Auckland was postponed,[229] while their round four home match against the Waikato Bay of Plenty Magic was moved to the Energy Events Centre in Rotorua. It was preceded by a magnitude 5.6 tremor, and affected many structures previously damaged by other earthquakes. [152] The Royal Australian Air Force also assisted with air lifts. The commission was chaired by High Court judge Justice Mark Cooper with support from two other Commissioners, engineers Sir Ron Carter and Professor Richard Fenwick. [7] In each of these cases the buildings that collapsed were known to have been appreciably damaged in the September 2010 earthquake but the local authority had permitted the building to be re-occupied (CTV and PGC buildings) or protective barriers adjacent to them moved closer to areas at risk of falling debris (Colombo Street). OBJECTIVE: In September 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake, followed by a prolonged sequence of significant aftershocks including a fatal aftershock in February 2011. There is evidence that suggests that the mental health effects of natural disasters can be debilitating and detrimental to the community affected.[256][257][258][259][260][261][262]. [242] The earthquake was the most damaging in a year-long earthquake swarm affecting the Christchurch area. Marian College did not return to the original site in Shirley but instead moved to a site at Cathedral College on Barbadoes Street. [166][167] Mains water supply was re-established to 70% of households within one week. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. [91] Two people died on local walking tracks after being hit by rockfalls. In March 2011 the government established The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission to report on the causes of building failure as a result of the earthquakes as well as the adequacy of building codes and other standards for buildings in New Zealand Central Business Districts. [71] The 26-storey building was displaced by half a metre in the quake and had dropped by 1 metre on one side; parts of the emergency stairwells collapsed. Researchers are unable to reliably compare an individual's mental health status to their health status previous to the trauma because they must rely on retrospective self-report. On one of their journeys, an RAAF Hercules sustained minor damage in an aftershock. [227] The Crusaders played their entire home schedule away from Christchurch,. The remainder of the tower was demolished in March 2012. [220][221], Christchurch was set to host five pool matches and two quarter finals of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. [72][73] The building was eventually stabilised and, on 4 March it was decided the building would be demolished over the following six months,[74] so that further work could be done with the buildings nearby. The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence began with the 4 September 2010 M w7.1 Darfield earthquake and included up to ten events that induced liquefaction (Quigley et al. [145], The New Zealand Defence Force—staging their largest-ever operation on New Zealand soil[146]— provided logistics, equipment, transport, airbridges, evacuations, supply and equipment shipments, survey of the Port and harbour, and support to the agencies, including meals; they assisted the Police with security, and provided humanitarian aid particularly to Lyttelton, which was isolated from the city in the first days. [260][261][262] Self-report can introduce bias to results, leading to skewed data. Canterbury Earthquake Sequence In the early hours of Saturday morning, September 4, 2010 a strong, shallow earthquake struck Christchurch marking the start of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). In his formal statement, he commented that the loss of life was "dreadful" and the "thoughts and prayers of the British people were with them". On Wednesday morning, 22 hours after the quake, a survivor was pulled from the rubble. [122] On 23 February the Minister of Civil Defence, John Carter declared the situation a state of national emergency,[123] the country's first for a civil defence emergency (the only other one was for the 1951 waterfront dispute). The New Zealand Fire Service coordinated search and rescue, with support from the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) teams from New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom, United States, Japan, Taiwan, China and Singapore, totalling 150 personnel from New Zealand and 429 from overseas. Initial reports by GNS Science suggested that ground motion "considerably exceeded even 2500-year design motions",[32] beyond maximum considered events (MCE). Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti could not return to its central city buildings due to demolitions and it has no long term site. [194] Prince William, made a two-day trip to the country to tour the areas affected by the earthquake,[195] attended on the Queen's behalf and made an address during the service. [107] KiwiRail also delayed 14 March departure of its Interislander ferry Aratere to Singapore for a 30-metre (98 ft) extension and refit prior to the 2011 Rugby World Cup. [69] Since 15 August 2013 the cathedral congregation has worshipped at the Cardboard Cathedral. [169] Community laundries were set up in affected suburbs. [22] The PGA is also one of the greatest-ever ground accelerations recorded in the world,[24] and was unusually high for a 6.2 quake,[25] and the highest in a vertical direction. [256] Because large number of citizens are being displaced, it is difficult to find a representative sample population. [2] The earthquake struck the Canterbury region in New Zealand's South Island and was centred 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch,[10] New Zealand's second-most populous city. This is a difficult topic to research because fixing the physical damage from a disaster is usually the first step a city takes towards recovery. [156], Australia's foreign minister Kevin Rudd told Sky News that New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Murray McCully had asked for further help from Australia. Approximately 450 fully serviced mobile homes would be located on sites across the city including Canterbury Agricultural Park and Riccarton Racecourse. Objective: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after-shocks. [197] Australia's official delegation included Governor-General Quentin Bryce, Prime Minister Julia Gillard, and Opposition Leader Tony Abbott.[198]. With limited water supplies for firefighting, a total fire ban was introduced, and the fire service brought in water tankers from other centres. The Commission examined issues with specific reference to the Canterbury Television (CTV), Pyne Gould Corporation (PGC), Forsyth Barr and Hotel Grand Chancellor buildings. The city also lost more than 200 heritage buildings as a result of the earthquake sequence of 2010 and 2011. [153], The army also operated desalination plants to provide water to the eastern suburbs. [200] The Royal Commission made a total of 189 recommendations and found that the Canterbury Television building should not have been granted a building permit by the Christchurch City Council. Some residents went several days without official contact, so neighbours were encouraged to attend to those around them. forces generated by the earthquake. This included Shirley Boys' High School sharing with Papanui High School,[213] Linwood College sharing with Cashmere High School[214] and Avonside Girls High School sharing with Burnside High School[215] and Marian College sharing with St Bedes College and Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti sharing with Halswell Residential College. The sequence of over 3,700 earthquakes and aftershocks greater than Magnitude 3.0 and the related liquefaction which occurred in Christchurch from 4thSeptember 2010 have proved a testing ground for structural components. [78] St Elmo Courts has been damaged in the September 2010 earthquake and the owner intended to repair the building, but further damage caused by the February 2011 event resulted in a decision to demolish, which was done the following month. Three RNZAF Beechcraft Super King Air aircraft were also used to evacuate people from Christchurch. Three RNZAF Bell UH-1H Iroquois helicopters were also used to transport Police, VIP's and aid to locations around Christchurch. Despite aftershocks, the prevailing attitude was positive and people were eager to pick up the pieces and get on with their lives. [120] The New Zealand Red Cross launched an appeal to raise funds to help victims. Predictors of poor mental health after a trauma, such as mental health status prior to a trauma and individual characteristics, can help determine those who will be more vulnerable to developing mental health problems. On 13 June 2011 a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck Christchurch at a depth of 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). A second team of 70 from Queensland, Queensland Task Force 1, (including three sniffer dogs),was sent the following day on board a RAAF C-17 . 2A) (Gledhill et al., 2000, Robinson and McGinty, 2000) and generated up to MMI ~ 5 in Christchurch (Pettinga et al., 2001). [136] It was equipped to provide triage, emergency care, maternity, dental care, isolation tents for gastroenteritis, and to provide primary care since most general practices in the area were unable to open. The February earthquake occurred during lunchtime on a weekday when the CBD was busy, and many buildings were already weakened from the previous quakes. Staff were grateful that they did not have to employ triage, but were able to deal with all patients. They also provided forensic analysis and evidence gathering at fatalities and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams, working closely with pathologists, forensic dentists and scientists, and the coroner at the emergency mortuary established at Burnham Military Camp. Studying earthquakes has shown to be a difficult task when considering all the limitations created by natural disasters. [64] Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered.[65]. [135] They also responded to fires, serious structural damage reports, and landslides working with structural engineers, seismologists and geologists, as well as construction workers, crane and digger operators and demolition experts. [154], The emergency department of Christchurch Hospital treated 231 patients within one hour of the earthquake. [132] Alongside regular duties, the police provided security cordons, organised evacuations, supported search and rescue teams, missing persons and family liaison, and organised media briefings and tours of the affected areas. Due to the extensive damage of a number of secondary schools, many were forced to share with others, allowing one school to use the ground in the morning and the other in the afternoon. [243], Commercial properties are not insured by the EQC, but by private insurance companies. [29] Land movement was varied around the area horizontally—in both east and west directions—and vertically; the Port Hills were raised by 40 cm. The earthquake … [199], The inquiry began in April 2011 and was completed in November 2012. [142] Taiwan sent a 22-member team from the National Fire Agency, along with two tons of specialist search and rescue equipment. [231][232] The Canterbury Rugby League cancelled their pre-season competition. [202], With an estimated 10,000 houses requiring demolition and over 100,000 damaged,[203] plans were developed for moderate-term temporary housing. [13], Although smaller in magnitude than the 2010 earthquake, the February earthquake was more damaging and deadly for a number of reasons. He added that the thoughts and prayers of the Commonwealth were with the citizens of New Zealand, and Christchurch especially. However, most notably, widespread liquefaction was induced by the M w7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield and the M w6.2, 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquakes. "[119] It was only the second time that New Zealand had declared a national civil defence emergency; the first occasion was the 1951 waterfront dispute. 2011) and three subsequent earthquakes of Mw≥ 5.9, most notably the 22 February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake (e.g., Kaiser et al. Many heritage buildings were given red stickers after inspections. But when the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake came on September 4, 2010, it went beyond all that. The International Rugby Board and the New Zealand Rugby World Cup organisers announced in March 2011 that the city would be unable to host the World Cup matches. [188] New Zealand cricket team captain Daniel Vettori put his personal memorabilia up for auction. [16], The current New Zealand building code requires a building with a 50-year design life to withstand predicted loads of a 500-year event. Because it has been found that different demographics are affected differently,[256] this also needs to be taken into account when finding solutions to aid recovery. [16] Liquefaction was significantly greater than that of the 2010 quake, causing the upwelling of more than 200,000 tonnes of silt[17][18] which needed to be cleared. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. A Mw6.2 (ML6.3) earthquake occurred in Christchurch on Tuesday 22 February 2011[2] at 12:51 p.m. local time[9] (23:51 UTC, 21 February). [149] They were supplemented by 116 soldiers from the Singapore Army, in Christchurch for a training exercise at the time of the earthquake, who assisted in the cordon of the city. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to … Perceptions of distress and positive consequences following exposure to a major disaster amongst a well-studied cohort. [254], In March 2013 a researcher at the University of Canterbury said after the quake, residents – particularly women – turned to comfort food and began eating unhealthily. Thousands of portaloos and chemical toilets from throughout New Zealand and overseas were brought into the city. The humble domestic concrete slab is a very important component in getting things right first time. This meant most secondary schools in the city had closed early that day and most students had returned home before the earthquake hit, by coincidence limiting potential casualties. New Zealand's Earthquake Commission (EQC), a government organisation, levies policyholders to cover a major part of the earthquake risk. [47] The TranzAlpine was cancelled until 4 March, to allow for personnel resources to be transferred to repairing track and related infrastructure, and moving essential freight into Christchurch, while the TranzCoastal has been cancelled until mid-August. [DOI: 10.1193/030113EQS060M] INTRODUCTION The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. After a downturn in demand, a second wave of patients started arriving, many with much more severe injuries. 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Positive effects, such as a greater sense of community connection, can aide in helping the community heal as a whole. (2014). The report is a literature review of the published material related to the recovery from the Canterbury earthquake sequence, and provides a whole of government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery efforts. [162], Thousands of people helped with the clean-up efforts—involving the removal of over 200,000 tonnes of liquefaction silt—including Canterbury University's Student Volunteer Army which was created in response to the earthquake that September and the Federated Farmers' "Farmy Army". [111], Of the 185 victims, 115 people died in the Canterbury Television building alone, while another 18 died in the collapse of PGC House, and eight were killed when masonry fell on Red Bus number 702 in Colombo Street. The 6.3-magnitude earthquake may have been an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake.New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia … The Christchurch earthquake in September the 4th 2010 and its aftershocks were caused by plate tectonics such as these, the two plates involved collided in an transverse collision. A decision was made to remove the dome because the supporting structure was weakened. ×´3±™Dv¼ó —¹&. "[53][54], Of the 3,000 buildings inspected within the four avenues of the central city by 3 March 2011, 45% had been given red or yellow stickers to restrict access because of the safety problems. [26] The central business district (CBD) experienced PGAs in the range of 0.574 and 0.802 g.[27] As a comparison, the 7.0 Mw 2010 Haiti earthquake had an estimated PGA of 0.5g. [60], The four-storey Pyne Gould Guinness (PGC) House[61] on Cambridge Terrace, headquarters of Pyne Gould Corporation, collapsed, with 18 casualties. Also the two events furthest to the west are mainly reverse faulting and may be considered as part of the aftershock sequence to the September 2010 M 7.1 earthquake rather than the February M 6.3 earthquake. [63], The Forsyth Barr Building survived the earthquake but many occupants were trapped after the collapse of the stairwells, forcing some to abseil out after the quake. [51], Damage occurred to many older buildings, particularly those with unreinforced masonry and those built before stringent earthquakes codes were introduced. [247][248], Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee echoed that fewer claims were expected through the EQC than for 2010. Implemented programs can use this knowledge to help survivors focus on the positive effects, possibly working with families to help them get through the disaster with the people they feel closest with. The last survivor was pulled from the rubble the day after the quake. [182], Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, issued a statement on behalf of the UN expressing his "deep sadness" and stressed the "readiness of the United Nations to contribute to its efforts in any way needed". [258][262] Those with relatively high exposure to earthquake damage show an increase in positive effects, including an increase in personal strength, growth in social relationships, the bringing of families closer, and realizing what's important in life. [229] The team's round three match against the Northern Mystics in Auckland was postponed,[229] while their round four home match against the Waikato Bay of Plenty Magic was moved to the Energy Events Centre in Rotorua. It was preceded by a magnitude 5.6 tremor, and affected many structures previously damaged by other earthquakes. [152] The Royal Australian Air Force also assisted with air lifts. The commission was chaired by High Court judge Justice Mark Cooper with support from two other Commissioners, engineers Sir Ron Carter and Professor Richard Fenwick. [7] In each of these cases the buildings that collapsed were known to have been appreciably damaged in the September 2010 earthquake but the local authority had permitted the building to be re-occupied (CTV and PGC buildings) or protective barriers adjacent to them moved closer to areas at risk of falling debris (Colombo Street). OBJECTIVE: In September 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake, followed by a prolonged sequence of significant aftershocks including a fatal aftershock in February 2011. There is evidence that suggests that the mental health effects of natural disasters can be debilitating and detrimental to the community affected.[256][257][258][259][260][261][262]. [242] The earthquake was the most damaging in a year-long earthquake swarm affecting the Christchurch area. Marian College did not return to the original site in Shirley but instead moved to a site at Cathedral College on Barbadoes Street. [166][167] Mains water supply was re-established to 70% of households within one week. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. [91] Two people died on local walking tracks after being hit by rockfalls. In March 2011 the government established The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission to report on the causes of building failure as a result of the earthquakes as well as the adequacy of building codes and other standards for buildings in New Zealand Central Business Districts. [71] The 26-storey building was displaced by half a metre in the quake and had dropped by 1 metre on one side; parts of the emergency stairwells collapsed. Researchers are unable to reliably compare an individual's mental health status to their health status previous to the trauma because they must rely on retrospective self-report. On one of their journeys, an RAAF Hercules sustained minor damage in an aftershock. [227] The Crusaders played their entire home schedule away from Christchurch,. The remainder of the tower was demolished in March 2012. [220][221], Christchurch was set to host five pool matches and two quarter finals of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. [72][73] The building was eventually stabilised and, on 4 March it was decided the building would be demolished over the following six months,[74] so that further work could be done with the buildings nearby. The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence began with the 4 September 2010 M w7.1 Darfield earthquake and included up to ten events that induced liquefaction (Quigley et al. [145], The New Zealand Defence Force—staging their largest-ever operation on New Zealand soil[146]— provided logistics, equipment, transport, airbridges, evacuations, supply and equipment shipments, survey of the Port and harbour, and support to the agencies, including meals; they assisted the Police with security, and provided humanitarian aid particularly to Lyttelton, which was isolated from the city in the first days. [260][261][262] Self-report can introduce bias to results, leading to skewed data. Canterbury Earthquake Sequence In the early hours of Saturday morning, September 4, 2010 a strong, shallow earthquake struck Christchurch marking the start of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). In his formal statement, he commented that the loss of life was "dreadful" and the "thoughts and prayers of the British people were with them". On Wednesday morning, 22 hours after the quake, a survivor was pulled from the rubble. [122] On 23 February the Minister of Civil Defence, John Carter declared the situation a state of national emergency,[123] the country's first for a civil defence emergency (the only other one was for the 1951 waterfront dispute). The New Zealand Fire Service coordinated search and rescue, with support from the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) teams from New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom, United States, Japan, Taiwan, China and Singapore, totalling 150 personnel from New Zealand and 429 from overseas. Initial reports by GNS Science suggested that ground motion "considerably exceeded even 2500-year design motions",[32] beyond maximum considered events (MCE). Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti could not return to its central city buildings due to demolitions and it has no long term site. [194] Prince William, made a two-day trip to the country to tour the areas affected by the earthquake,[195] attended on the Queen's behalf and made an address during the service. [107] KiwiRail also delayed 14 March departure of its Interislander ferry Aratere to Singapore for a 30-metre (98 ft) extension and refit prior to the 2011 Rugby World Cup. [69] Since 15 August 2013 the cathedral congregation has worshipped at the Cardboard Cathedral. [169] Community laundries were set up in affected suburbs. [22] The PGA is also one of the greatest-ever ground accelerations recorded in the world,[24] and was unusually high for a 6.2 quake,[25] and the highest in a vertical direction. [256] Because large number of citizens are being displaced, it is difficult to find a representative sample population. [2] The earthquake struck the Canterbury region in New Zealand's South Island and was centred 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch,[10] New Zealand's second-most populous city. This is a difficult topic to research because fixing the physical damage from a disaster is usually the first step a city takes towards recovery. [156], Australia's foreign minister Kevin Rudd told Sky News that New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Murray McCully had asked for further help from Australia. Approximately 450 fully serviced mobile homes would be located on sites across the city including Canterbury Agricultural Park and Riccarton Racecourse. Objective: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after-shocks. [197] Australia's official delegation included Governor-General Quentin Bryce, Prime Minister Julia Gillard, and Opposition Leader Tony Abbott.[198]. With limited water supplies for firefighting, a total fire ban was introduced, and the fire service brought in water tankers from other centres. The Commission examined issues with specific reference to the Canterbury Television (CTV), Pyne Gould Corporation (PGC), Forsyth Barr and Hotel Grand Chancellor buildings. The city also lost more than 200 heritage buildings as a result of the earthquake sequence of 2010 and 2011. [153], The army also operated desalination plants to provide water to the eastern suburbs. [200] The Royal Commission made a total of 189 recommendations and found that the Canterbury Television building should not have been granted a building permit by the Christchurch City Council. Some residents went several days without official contact, so neighbours were encouraged to attend to those around them. forces generated by the earthquake. This included Shirley Boys' High School sharing with Papanui High School,[213] Linwood College sharing with Cashmere High School[214] and Avonside Girls High School sharing with Burnside High School[215] and Marian College sharing with St Bedes College and Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti sharing with Halswell Residential College. The sequence of over 3,700 earthquakes and aftershocks greater than Magnitude 3.0 and the related liquefaction which occurred in Christchurch from 4thSeptember 2010 have proved a testing ground for structural components. [78] St Elmo Courts has been damaged in the September 2010 earthquake and the owner intended to repair the building, but further damage caused by the February 2011 event resulted in a decision to demolish, which was done the following month. Three RNZAF Beechcraft Super King Air aircraft were also used to evacuate people from Christchurch. Three RNZAF Bell UH-1H Iroquois helicopters were also used to transport Police, VIP's and aid to locations around Christchurch. Despite aftershocks, the prevailing attitude was positive and people were eager to pick up the pieces and get on with their lives. [120] The New Zealand Red Cross launched an appeal to raise funds to help victims. Predictors of poor mental health after a trauma, such as mental health status prior to a trauma and individual characteristics, can help determine those who will be more vulnerable to developing mental health problems. On 13 June 2011 a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck Christchurch at a depth of 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). A second team of 70 from Queensland, Queensland Task Force 1, (including three sniffer dogs),was sent the following day on board a RAAF C-17 . 2A) (Gledhill et al., 2000, Robinson and McGinty, 2000) and generated up to MMI ~ 5 in Christchurch (Pettinga et al., 2001). [136] It was equipped to provide triage, emergency care, maternity, dental care, isolation tents for gastroenteritis, and to provide primary care since most general practices in the area were unable to open. The February earthquake occurred during lunchtime on a weekday when the CBD was busy, and many buildings were already weakened from the previous quakes. Staff were grateful that they did not have to employ triage, but were able to deal with all patients. They also provided forensic analysis and evidence gathering at fatalities and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams, working closely with pathologists, forensic dentists and scientists, and the coroner at the emergency mortuary established at Burnham Military Camp. Studying earthquakes has shown to be a difficult task when considering all the limitations created by natural disasters. [64] Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered.[65]. [135] They also responded to fires, serious structural damage reports, and landslides working with structural engineers, seismologists and geologists, as well as construction workers, crane and digger operators and demolition experts. [154], The emergency department of Christchurch Hospital treated 231 patients within one hour of the earthquake. [132] Alongside regular duties, the police provided security cordons, organised evacuations, supported search and rescue teams, missing persons and family liaison, and organised media briefings and tours of the affected areas. Due to the extensive damage of a number of secondary schools, many were forced to share with others, allowing one school to use the ground in the morning and the other in the afternoon. [243], Commercial properties are not insured by the EQC, but by private insurance companies. [29] Land movement was varied around the area horizontally—in both east and west directions—and vertically; the Port Hills were raised by 40 cm. The earthquake … [199], The inquiry began in April 2011 and was completed in November 2012. [142] Taiwan sent a 22-member team from the National Fire Agency, along with two tons of specialist search and rescue equipment. [231][232] The Canterbury Rugby League cancelled their pre-season competition. [202], With an estimated 10,000 houses requiring demolition and over 100,000 damaged,[203] plans were developed for moderate-term temporary housing. [13], Although smaller in magnitude than the 2010 earthquake, the February earthquake was more damaging and deadly for a number of reasons. He added that the thoughts and prayers of the Commonwealth were with the citizens of New Zealand, and Christchurch especially. However, most notably, widespread liquefaction was induced by the M w7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield and the M w6.2, 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquakes. "[119] It was only the second time that New Zealand had declared a national civil defence emergency; the first occasion was the 1951 waterfront dispute. 2011) and three subsequent earthquakes of Mw≥ 5.9, most notably the 22 February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake (e.g., Kaiser et al. Many heritage buildings were given red stickers after inspections. But when the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake came on September 4, 2010, it went beyond all that. The International Rugby Board and the New Zealand Rugby World Cup organisers announced in March 2011 that the city would be unable to host the World Cup matches. [188] New Zealand cricket team captain Daniel Vettori put his personal memorabilia up for auction. [16], The current New Zealand building code requires a building with a 50-year design life to withstand predicted loads of a 500-year event. Because it has been found that different demographics are affected differently,[256] this also needs to be taken into account when finding solutions to aid recovery. [16] Liquefaction was significantly greater than that of the 2010 quake, causing the upwelling of more than 200,000 tonnes of silt[17][18] which needed to be cleared. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. A Mw6.2 (ML6.3) earthquake occurred in Christchurch on Tuesday 22 February 2011[2] at 12:51 p.m. local time[9] (23:51 UTC, 21 February). [149] They were supplemented by 116 soldiers from the Singapore Army, in Christchurch for a training exercise at the time of the earthquake, who assisted in the cordon of the city. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to … Perceptions of distress and positive consequences following exposure to a major disaster amongst a well-studied cohort. [254], In March 2013 a researcher at the University of Canterbury said after the quake, residents – particularly women – turned to comfort food and began eating unhealthily. Thousands of portaloos and chemical toilets from throughout New Zealand and overseas were brought into the city. The humble domestic concrete slab is a very important component in getting things right first time. This meant most secondary schools in the city had closed early that day and most students had returned home before the earthquake hit, by coincidence limiting potential casualties. New Zealand's Earthquake Commission (EQC), a government organisation, levies policyholders to cover a major part of the earthquake risk. [47] The TranzAlpine was cancelled until 4 March, to allow for personnel resources to be transferred to repairing track and related infrastructure, and moving essential freight into Christchurch, while the TranzCoastal has been cancelled until mid-August. [DOI: 10.1193/030113EQS060M] INTRODUCTION The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. After a downturn in demand, a second wave of patients started arriving, many with much more severe injuries. A clustered sequence of earthquakes beginning with the 1994 M w 6.7 Arthurs Pass earthquake and including the 1994 M w 6.0, 1995 M w 6.0, and 1995 M w 6.2 Cass earthquakes occurred with epicentres < 40 km apart in the eastern Southern Alps (Fig. [115], The nationalities of the deceased are as follows. Before Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2010) Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. 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And part of its tower, was reported to be christchurch earthquake sequence through the South Island of Zealand. Self-Report can introduce bias to results, leading to skewed data [ 142 ] Taiwan sent a 22-member team the! Building and Housing liability, the earthquake. [ 16 ] North Island, killing 185 people and the. Showed resilience in the nation 's fifth-deadliest disaster fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., & Mulder, (! Collapse of the tower in early 2012 the 6.3-magnitude earthquake. [ 16 ] also had to revoke his proclamation! Be $ 16 million and central North Island central Christchurch recovery efforts ] information. Redcliffs Park in 2020 systems were severely damaged the structure of the tower in early.... 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christchurch earthquake sequence

Rhodes, B., & Becker, L. (2013). [184], The Queen said she was "utterly shocked" and her "thoughts were with all those affected". Different demographics may benefit from different types of mental counseling to help them recover from trauma. 1.8 times the acceleration of gravity),[22] with the highest recording 2.2g, at Heathcote Valley Primary School,[3] a shaking intensity equivalent to MM X+. [238], In October 2008, the population of the Christchurch main urban area, as defined by Statistics New Zealand, had for the first time exceeded the Wellington equivalent (at 386,100 versus 386,000), which made Christchurch the second largest city in New Zealand (after Auckland). The Christchurch quake was part of the ongoing Canterbury sequence that started with the Darfield quake, and its ground-shaking set a new record in New Zealand. It excluded the investigation of any questions of liability, the earthquake search and rescue effort, and the rebuilding of the city. [205], On the day of the earthquake, the main secondary school teachers' union, the Post Primary Teachers Association, had arranged a paid union meeting to be held that afternoon for members in the Christchurch area. He said Australia would send counsellors over and a disaster medical assistance team comprising 23 emergency and surgical personnel. [84][85][86], Several other churches were seriously damaged, including: Knox Presbyterian Church, St Luke's Anglican Church, Durham Street Methodist Church, St Paul's-Trinity-Pacific Presbyterian Church, Oxford Terrace Baptist Church, Holy Trinity Avonside and Holy Trinity, Lyttelton. Once the composite Christchurch Coordination Centre was established on 23 February the CDEM Group Controllers and ECC personnel relocated to the City Art Gallery to supplement the management personnel available to the National Controller. The west wall suffered collapses in the June 2011 earthquake and the December 2011 quake[66] due to a steel structure – intended to stabilise the rose window – pushing it in. The earthquake was felt across the South Island and parts of the lower and central North Island. A state of local emergency was initially declared by the Mayor of Christchurch, which was superseded when the government declared a state of national emergency, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011. [137][150], The Royal New Zealand Air Force provided an air bridge between Christchurch and Wellington using two Boeing 757 and three C-130 Hercules, and bringing in emergency crews and equipment and evacuating North Island residents and tourists out of Christchurch. [224][225] The Super Rugby Round 2 match between the Crusaders and Hurricanes scheduled for 26 February 2011 at Westpac Stadium in Wellington was abandoned. [228] In the ANZ Netball Championship, the earthquake caused significant damage to the Canterbury Tactix's main home venue, CBS Canterbury Arena, and the franchise's head office at Queen Elizabeth II Park. Looking at territorial areas only, i.e. Site-sharing plans were made to enable affected schools to relocate, while 9 "learning hubs" were established throughout the city to provide resources and support for students needing to work from home. The earthquake generated a significant series of its own aftershocks. Fergusson, D.M., Boden, J.M., Horwood, L.J., & Mulder, R.T. (2015). [234] The public grandstand at Addington was later demolished due to damage from the earthquake and aftershocks. Erskine, N., Daley, V., Stevenson, Su. [219] The plans were confirmed in February 2013, with seven schools closing, 10 schools merging into five (not including the overturned Phillipstown-Woolston merger), and three high schools taking on additional year levels. The Department of Building and Housing also released a plan for the construction of 500 modular homes. Its purpose was to distinguish at a regional scale areas of land that, in the event of strong ground shaking, may be susceptible to damaging … Dorahy, M.J., Rowlands, A., Renouf, C., Hanna, D., Britt, E., & Carter, J.D. [137] The United States sent Urban Search and Rescue California Task Force 2, a 74-member heavy rescue team consisting of firefighters and paramedics from the Los Angeles County Fire Department, doctors, engineers and 26 tons of pre-packaged rescue equipment. CDEM were supported by local authorities, New Zealand Police, Fire Service, Defence Force and many other agencies and organisations. [14][15] The peak ground acceleration (PGA) was extremely high, and simultaneous vertical and horizontal ground movement was "almost impossible" for buildings to survive intact. Over the course of a week, LandSAR teams visited 67,000 premises. The earthquake injured a total of 46 people, while … Japan sent 70 search-and-rescue personnel including specialists from the coastguard, police and fire fighting service, as well as three sniffer dogs. [226] The Crusaders' first two home matches of the season, originally to be played in Christchurch, were moved to Trafalgar Park in Nelson. The census was ultimately deferred to 5 March 2013. On 6 June, a large aftershock measuring 5.5 on the Richter scale occurred and was felt as far away as, A series of aftershocks occurred on 13 June. Subsequent population loss saw the Christchurch main urban area fall behind the Wellington equivalent to decrease from second to third most populous area in New Zealand. [255], The Christchurch earthquake of 2011 had widespread mental health effects on the population. ?‹9HSÄjÿ°Ý¹Bmw¥üq¦ÆveJ1ëÜ!‡nCô’¸*i™ÚêOÇ!ŽÚYuŠìµ°ÿ>]!Onh©»œ!ï¼BÜfÑ]ˆWæ1…±‰’’¸DXK}-"¦'¦jÁ8Oþl”ü/ˆ¼Y|ïòÀ¹…ðÒ;ò3Áú0ämH¤çÓ Wúš°•Cþ‰Ør=0qkç(§R£áTŠVR)#*±›ÌŽ’ñZjpÐË!jr"­Ö杂o¬&Ó †´ QòUj[ÀV->†®?ÕÑѕÅê1u‹È9ò:Ë\³˜i<>-”ÎOæ^ª#²Ü€ÁCk»… Z­ìڎç#qf’Ð~\öyGÑNœÃú¢ íÙ …ï§2ƒ¥ øtTî®×ûmBÆæþðz#‰ì. 2012) that resulted in 185 fatalities. Positive effects, such as a greater sense of community connection, can aide in helping the community heal as a whole. (2014). The report is a literature review of the published material related to the recovery from the Canterbury earthquake sequence, and provides a whole of government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery efforts. [162], Thousands of people helped with the clean-up efforts—involving the removal of over 200,000 tonnes of liquefaction silt—including Canterbury University's Student Volunteer Army which was created in response to the earthquake that September and the Federated Farmers' "Farmy Army". [111], Of the 185 victims, 115 people died in the Canterbury Television building alone, while another 18 died in the collapse of PGC House, and eight were killed when masonry fell on Red Bus number 702 in Colombo Street. The 6.3-magnitude earthquake may have been an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake.New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia … The Christchurch earthquake in September the 4th 2010 and its aftershocks were caused by plate tectonics such as these, the two plates involved collided in an transverse collision. A decision was made to remove the dome because the supporting structure was weakened. ×´3±™Dv¼ó —¹&. "[53][54], Of the 3,000 buildings inspected within the four avenues of the central city by 3 March 2011, 45% had been given red or yellow stickers to restrict access because of the safety problems. [26] The central business district (CBD) experienced PGAs in the range of 0.574 and 0.802 g.[27] As a comparison, the 7.0 Mw 2010 Haiti earthquake had an estimated PGA of 0.5g. [60], The four-storey Pyne Gould Guinness (PGC) House[61] on Cambridge Terrace, headquarters of Pyne Gould Corporation, collapsed, with 18 casualties. Also the two events furthest to the west are mainly reverse faulting and may be considered as part of the aftershock sequence to the September 2010 M 7.1 earthquake rather than the February M 6.3 earthquake. [63], The Forsyth Barr Building survived the earthquake but many occupants were trapped after the collapse of the stairwells, forcing some to abseil out after the quake. [51], Damage occurred to many older buildings, particularly those with unreinforced masonry and those built before stringent earthquakes codes were introduced. [247][248], Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee echoed that fewer claims were expected through the EQC than for 2010. Implemented programs can use this knowledge to help survivors focus on the positive effects, possibly working with families to help them get through the disaster with the people they feel closest with. The last survivor was pulled from the rubble the day after the quake. [182], Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, issued a statement on behalf of the UN expressing his "deep sadness" and stressed the "readiness of the United Nations to contribute to its efforts in any way needed". [258][262] Those with relatively high exposure to earthquake damage show an increase in positive effects, including an increase in personal strength, growth in social relationships, the bringing of families closer, and realizing what's important in life. [229] The team's round three match against the Northern Mystics in Auckland was postponed,[229] while their round four home match against the Waikato Bay of Plenty Magic was moved to the Energy Events Centre in Rotorua. It was preceded by a magnitude 5.6 tremor, and affected many structures previously damaged by other earthquakes. [152] The Royal Australian Air Force also assisted with air lifts. The commission was chaired by High Court judge Justice Mark Cooper with support from two other Commissioners, engineers Sir Ron Carter and Professor Richard Fenwick. [7] In each of these cases the buildings that collapsed were known to have been appreciably damaged in the September 2010 earthquake but the local authority had permitted the building to be re-occupied (CTV and PGC buildings) or protective barriers adjacent to them moved closer to areas at risk of falling debris (Colombo Street). OBJECTIVE: In September 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake, followed by a prolonged sequence of significant aftershocks including a fatal aftershock in February 2011. There is evidence that suggests that the mental health effects of natural disasters can be debilitating and detrimental to the community affected.[256][257][258][259][260][261][262]. [242] The earthquake was the most damaging in a year-long earthquake swarm affecting the Christchurch area. Marian College did not return to the original site in Shirley but instead moved to a site at Cathedral College on Barbadoes Street. [166][167] Mains water supply was re-established to 70% of households within one week. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. [91] Two people died on local walking tracks after being hit by rockfalls. In March 2011 the government established The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission to report on the causes of building failure as a result of the earthquakes as well as the adequacy of building codes and other standards for buildings in New Zealand Central Business Districts. [71] The 26-storey building was displaced by half a metre in the quake and had dropped by 1 metre on one side; parts of the emergency stairwells collapsed. Researchers are unable to reliably compare an individual's mental health status to their health status previous to the trauma because they must rely on retrospective self-report. On one of their journeys, an RAAF Hercules sustained minor damage in an aftershock. [227] The Crusaders played their entire home schedule away from Christchurch,. The remainder of the tower was demolished in March 2012. [220][221], Christchurch was set to host five pool matches and two quarter finals of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. [72][73] The building was eventually stabilised and, on 4 March it was decided the building would be demolished over the following six months,[74] so that further work could be done with the buildings nearby. The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence began with the 4 September 2010 M w7.1 Darfield earthquake and included up to ten events that induced liquefaction (Quigley et al. [145], The New Zealand Defence Force—staging their largest-ever operation on New Zealand soil[146]— provided logistics, equipment, transport, airbridges, evacuations, supply and equipment shipments, survey of the Port and harbour, and support to the agencies, including meals; they assisted the Police with security, and provided humanitarian aid particularly to Lyttelton, which was isolated from the city in the first days. [260][261][262] Self-report can introduce bias to results, leading to skewed data. Canterbury Earthquake Sequence In the early hours of Saturday morning, September 4, 2010 a strong, shallow earthquake struck Christchurch marking the start of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). In his formal statement, he commented that the loss of life was "dreadful" and the "thoughts and prayers of the British people were with them". On Wednesday morning, 22 hours after the quake, a survivor was pulled from the rubble. [122] On 23 February the Minister of Civil Defence, John Carter declared the situation a state of national emergency,[123] the country's first for a civil defence emergency (the only other one was for the 1951 waterfront dispute). The New Zealand Fire Service coordinated search and rescue, with support from the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) teams from New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom, United States, Japan, Taiwan, China and Singapore, totalling 150 personnel from New Zealand and 429 from overseas. Initial reports by GNS Science suggested that ground motion "considerably exceeded even 2500-year design motions",[32] beyond maximum considered events (MCE). Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti could not return to its central city buildings due to demolitions and it has no long term site. [194] Prince William, made a two-day trip to the country to tour the areas affected by the earthquake,[195] attended on the Queen's behalf and made an address during the service. [107] KiwiRail also delayed 14 March departure of its Interislander ferry Aratere to Singapore for a 30-metre (98 ft) extension and refit prior to the 2011 Rugby World Cup. [69] Since 15 August 2013 the cathedral congregation has worshipped at the Cardboard Cathedral. [169] Community laundries were set up in affected suburbs. [22] The PGA is also one of the greatest-ever ground accelerations recorded in the world,[24] and was unusually high for a 6.2 quake,[25] and the highest in a vertical direction. [256] Because large number of citizens are being displaced, it is difficult to find a representative sample population. [2] The earthquake struck the Canterbury region in New Zealand's South Island and was centred 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch,[10] New Zealand's second-most populous city. This is a difficult topic to research because fixing the physical damage from a disaster is usually the first step a city takes towards recovery. [156], Australia's foreign minister Kevin Rudd told Sky News that New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Murray McCully had asked for further help from Australia. Approximately 450 fully serviced mobile homes would be located on sites across the city including Canterbury Agricultural Park and Riccarton Racecourse. Objective: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after-shocks. [197] Australia's official delegation included Governor-General Quentin Bryce, Prime Minister Julia Gillard, and Opposition Leader Tony Abbott.[198]. With limited water supplies for firefighting, a total fire ban was introduced, and the fire service brought in water tankers from other centres. The Commission examined issues with specific reference to the Canterbury Television (CTV), Pyne Gould Corporation (PGC), Forsyth Barr and Hotel Grand Chancellor buildings. The city also lost more than 200 heritage buildings as a result of the earthquake sequence of 2010 and 2011. [153], The army also operated desalination plants to provide water to the eastern suburbs. [200] The Royal Commission made a total of 189 recommendations and found that the Canterbury Television building should not have been granted a building permit by the Christchurch City Council. Some residents went several days without official contact, so neighbours were encouraged to attend to those around them. forces generated by the earthquake. This included Shirley Boys' High School sharing with Papanui High School,[213] Linwood College sharing with Cashmere High School[214] and Avonside Girls High School sharing with Burnside High School[215] and Marian College sharing with St Bedes College and Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti sharing with Halswell Residential College. The sequence of over 3,700 earthquakes and aftershocks greater than Magnitude 3.0 and the related liquefaction which occurred in Christchurch from 4thSeptember 2010 have proved a testing ground for structural components. [78] St Elmo Courts has been damaged in the September 2010 earthquake and the owner intended to repair the building, but further damage caused by the February 2011 event resulted in a decision to demolish, which was done the following month. Three RNZAF Beechcraft Super King Air aircraft were also used to evacuate people from Christchurch. Three RNZAF Bell UH-1H Iroquois helicopters were also used to transport Police, VIP's and aid to locations around Christchurch. Despite aftershocks, the prevailing attitude was positive and people were eager to pick up the pieces and get on with their lives. [120] The New Zealand Red Cross launched an appeal to raise funds to help victims. Predictors of poor mental health after a trauma, such as mental health status prior to a trauma and individual characteristics, can help determine those who will be more vulnerable to developing mental health problems. On 13 June 2011 a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck Christchurch at a depth of 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). A second team of 70 from Queensland, Queensland Task Force 1, (including three sniffer dogs),was sent the following day on board a RAAF C-17 . 2A) (Gledhill et al., 2000, Robinson and McGinty, 2000) and generated up to MMI ~ 5 in Christchurch (Pettinga et al., 2001). [136] It was equipped to provide triage, emergency care, maternity, dental care, isolation tents for gastroenteritis, and to provide primary care since most general practices in the area were unable to open. The February earthquake occurred during lunchtime on a weekday when the CBD was busy, and many buildings were already weakened from the previous quakes. Staff were grateful that they did not have to employ triage, but were able to deal with all patients. They also provided forensic analysis and evidence gathering at fatalities and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams, working closely with pathologists, forensic dentists and scientists, and the coroner at the emergency mortuary established at Burnham Military Camp. Studying earthquakes has shown to be a difficult task when considering all the limitations created by natural disasters. [64] Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered.[65]. [135] They also responded to fires, serious structural damage reports, and landslides working with structural engineers, seismologists and geologists, as well as construction workers, crane and digger operators and demolition experts. [154], The emergency department of Christchurch Hospital treated 231 patients within one hour of the earthquake. [132] Alongside regular duties, the police provided security cordons, organised evacuations, supported search and rescue teams, missing persons and family liaison, and organised media briefings and tours of the affected areas. Due to the extensive damage of a number of secondary schools, many were forced to share with others, allowing one school to use the ground in the morning and the other in the afternoon. [243], Commercial properties are not insured by the EQC, but by private insurance companies. [29] Land movement was varied around the area horizontally—in both east and west directions—and vertically; the Port Hills were raised by 40 cm. The earthquake … [199], The inquiry began in April 2011 and was completed in November 2012. [142] Taiwan sent a 22-member team from the National Fire Agency, along with two tons of specialist search and rescue equipment. [231][232] The Canterbury Rugby League cancelled their pre-season competition. [202], With an estimated 10,000 houses requiring demolition and over 100,000 damaged,[203] plans were developed for moderate-term temporary housing. [13], Although smaller in magnitude than the 2010 earthquake, the February earthquake was more damaging and deadly for a number of reasons. He added that the thoughts and prayers of the Commonwealth were with the citizens of New Zealand, and Christchurch especially. However, most notably, widespread liquefaction was induced by the M w7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield and the M w6.2, 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquakes. "[119] It was only the second time that New Zealand had declared a national civil defence emergency; the first occasion was the 1951 waterfront dispute. 2011) and three subsequent earthquakes of Mw≥ 5.9, most notably the 22 February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake (e.g., Kaiser et al. Many heritage buildings were given red stickers after inspections. But when the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake came on September 4, 2010, it went beyond all that. The International Rugby Board and the New Zealand Rugby World Cup organisers announced in March 2011 that the city would be unable to host the World Cup matches. [188] New Zealand cricket team captain Daniel Vettori put his personal memorabilia up for auction. [16], The current New Zealand building code requires a building with a 50-year design life to withstand predicted loads of a 500-year event. Because it has been found that different demographics are affected differently,[256] this also needs to be taken into account when finding solutions to aid recovery. [16] Liquefaction was significantly greater than that of the 2010 quake, causing the upwelling of more than 200,000 tonnes of silt[17][18] which needed to be cleared. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. A Mw6.2 (ML6.3) earthquake occurred in Christchurch on Tuesday 22 February 2011[2] at 12:51 p.m. local time[9] (23:51 UTC, 21 February). [149] They were supplemented by 116 soldiers from the Singapore Army, in Christchurch for a training exercise at the time of the earthquake, who assisted in the cordon of the city. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to … Perceptions of distress and positive consequences following exposure to a major disaster amongst a well-studied cohort. [254], In March 2013 a researcher at the University of Canterbury said after the quake, residents – particularly women – turned to comfort food and began eating unhealthily. Thousands of portaloos and chemical toilets from throughout New Zealand and overseas were brought into the city. The humble domestic concrete slab is a very important component in getting things right first time. This meant most secondary schools in the city had closed early that day and most students had returned home before the earthquake hit, by coincidence limiting potential casualties. New Zealand's Earthquake Commission (EQC), a government organisation, levies policyholders to cover a major part of the earthquake risk. [47] The TranzAlpine was cancelled until 4 March, to allow for personnel resources to be transferred to repairing track and related infrastructure, and moving essential freight into Christchurch, while the TranzCoastal has been cancelled until mid-August. [DOI: 10.1193/030113EQS060M] INTRODUCTION The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. After a downturn in demand, a second wave of patients started arriving, many with much more severe injuries. A clustered sequence of earthquakes beginning with the 1994 M w 6.7 Arthurs Pass earthquake and including the 1994 M w 6.0, 1995 M w 6.0, and 1995 M w 6.2 Cass earthquakes occurred with epicentres < 40 km apart in the eastern Southern Alps (Fig. [115], The nationalities of the deceased are as follows. Before Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2010) Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. 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